International Society for the History of Behavioral and Social Sciences (Cheiron)

Paul F. Ballantyne, Ph.D.


Human Nature;History of Psychology;
Psychological Theory;
Introductory Psychology;
Animal Learning;
Activity Theory;
Cognition; Motivation;
Contemporary Issues;
Psychometrics & Society




Thanks for visiting,

Paul F. Ballantyne


Canadian Testing Links, American Testing Links



History and Theory of Psychology: An early 21st century student's perspective

Paul F. Ballantyne Ph.D. 2008©


Section 1: From the Presocratics to Aristotle: Fundamental issues and the theoretical imperative

Section 2: From Bacon to Kant: Science and Psychological Themes

Section 3: Bridging The Gap: British Associationism, Psychophysics, and the Founding of a Discipline

Section 4: Evolution and Psychology: In Darwin, Romanes, Morgan, James, Dewey, and the Chicago Functionalists

Section 5: Wax and Wane of American General Psychology (1920-1990s): S-O-R, the Operationist Variable model, and the Crisis of Relevance

Selected Bibliography


Psychology, Society, and Ability Testing (1859-2002):
Transformative alternatives to
Mental Darwinism and Interactionism

Paul F. Ballantyne 2002©



Chapter 1: Organic Evolution and The Mental Continuity Doctrine: Mental Darwinism proposed and elaborated (1859-1916)

Chapter 2: American Animal Psychology and The Eugenics Movement: Mental Darwinism Institutionalized (1900-1918)

Chapter 3: Assimilation and Sorting Before World War I: American Schooling, Administrative Reform, And Individual Ability Testing

Chapter 4: The Rise of Group Ability Testing: World War I, School Tracking, and Early Vocational Guidance (1918-1932)

Chapter 5: From New Deal Training Programs to World War II Testing (1933-1946)

Chapter 6: Ability Testing and the Cold War Confidence Game: Vocational assessment, Entrance exams, and the Search for Talent during the rise of a military-industrial complex (1947-1963)

Chapter 7: Questioning The Ideology Of Testing: The modernist search for an appropriate mental yardstick (1964-1981)

Chapter 8: From Testing Malaise and School Accountability to Neo-Vygotskian Approaches (1981-2002)




International Society for Theoretical Psychology (I.S.T.P.)